The bird sites of international importance on Kamchatka
Yuri N. Gerasimov & Ni.N.Gerasimov
(Kamcatka Department of Pacific Institute of Geography of Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Science)
In the end of XX century more then 1100 species of birds from 10000 of
all world species were included in Red data books as endangered. 123 species
included in Red data book of Russia.
One of the best ways for bird's conservation is conservation of most important habitats: place of concentration during moulting, migration and wintering, most important breeding areas. It is a reason of existence of different world's programs on searching, designation and protection of most important bird's habitats. About 2-2.5 million of ducks, more then 0.5 millions waders and hundreds thousand of other waterbirds migrate to Kamchatka during spring. It became the reason why Kamchatka were included in such programs.
One of the most important program of site conservation is Ramsar convention which were established in 1971 in Ramsar, Iran. Soviet Union joint this convention in 1975. That time 13 wetlands of Soviet Union were designated as Ramsar Sites. However, it was clear that so big country should have much more wetlands internationally important for waterfowl. The list of perspective Ramsar sires(?sites) was prepared and published in early 1980s. It included 250 wetlands.
Russia had only 3 Ramsar sites after destroying of Soviet Union in 1991. New step of developing of Ramsar program in Russia was made in 1994 when 35 wetlands in Russia were designated as Ramsar sites by decision of Russian government. This list included 4 wetlands from Kamchatka: Parapol, Karaginskiy Island, Moroshechnaya River and Utkholok Cape. It is 11 % of all number or 15 % of all square. Unfortunately later became impossible to designate any new Ramsar sites in Russia.
However ornithologists continued to gather information about important wetlands for birds in Russia. As a results the shadow list of Ramsar sites of Russia was published in 2000. It included 175 wetlands, 14 of its on Kamchatka.
Other program connected with wetlands conservation was established in 1996 in Brisbane Australia. It was Shorebird site network. Moroshechnaya River Estuary became the part of this network. Till now this place is a single Russian place in this network. Also networks for cranes and Anatidae were established. Unfortunately including of new sites to these networks as well as Ramsar sites became impossible in Russia from 2000s.
One of the most famous program of habitat conservation in the world is the program of Important Birds Areas. This program was established in 1980s by BirdLife International. This program includes all birds, has not official government status.
Ornithologists of Kamchatka joint this program in 1990s. The first published list of IBAs of Kamchatka included 28 sites of international importance. The IBAs of Kamchatka were included in the lists of IBAs of Asia and Berengia region. In 2007 new list which included 39 sites was prepared; unfortunately it is not published till now.